Prism phone surveillance
Now some consumers, both foreign and domestic, feel reluctant to use these products and services for fear that the U.
Edward Snowden still eying asylum in Germany
Since many of the world's most successful cloud server services are located in the United States where the spying occurs, many foreign companies and governments are now refusing to do business with these American corporations. As if overcoming this obstacle wasn't enough for these companies, a new aspect of PRISM has come to light.
The NSA uses this back door to break into a companys data system and spy. Though the U. In addition to defending national lawsuits by Facebook and Yahoo! Finland is taking the lead , claiming that wiretaps, email snooping and monitoring web searches are against their laws.
Companies and countries, however, have many more resources than the ordinary citizen. Sixty-two percent of those polled by the Pew Research Center and The Washington Post were not concerned with the government spying on them. This is possibly due to a belief that they are immune to spying because they are not directly involved in illegal activity. However, citizens are possibly at risk of misplaced attribution of guilt based on their associations and communications with criminals.
The issue is largely one of personal privacy versus national security, and which one is most important. Politically, some argue that the safety and security of the nation are more vital than privacy and freedom, while others tout the Fourth Amendment , which protects individuals against unreasonable searches, including searches of their phone calls, emails and web queries. Business demand for specialized knowledge in a growing digital world will continue to expand as new technology security concerns arise.
Some NSA agents used U. In , a prosecutor was accused of forging judges' signatures to get authorization to wiretap someone who was the object of a romantic obsession. The AP knows of many other instances in the US. Surveillance data will always be used for other purposes, even if this is prohibited.
Once the data has been accumulated and the state has the possibility of access to it, it can misuse that data in dreadful ways, as shown by examples from Europe , the US , and most recently Turkey. Turkey's confusion about who had really used the Bylock program only exacerbated the basic deliberate injustice of arbitrarily punishing people for having used it. Personal data collected by the state is also likely to be obtained by outside crackers that break the security of the servers, even by crackers working for hostile states. Governments can easily use massive surveillance capability to subvert democracy directly.
PRISM (surveillance program)
Total surveillance accessible to the state enables the state to launch a massive fishing expedition against any person. To make journalism and democracy safe, we must limit the accumulation of data that is easily accessible to the state.
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The Electronic Frontier Foundation and other organizations propose a set of legal principles designed to prevent the abuses of massive surveillance. These principles include, crucially, explicit legal protection for whistleblowers; as a consequence, they would be adequate for protecting democratic freedoms—if adopted completely and enforced without exception forever. However, such legal protections are precarious: as recent history shows, they can be repealed as in the FISA Amendments Act , suspended, or ignored.
Meanwhile, demagogues will cite the usual excuses as grounds for total surveillance; any terrorist attack, even one that kills just a handful of people, can be hyped to provide an opportunity. If limits on access to the data are set aside, it will be as if they had never existed: years worth of dossiers would suddenly become available for misuse by the state and its agents and, if collected by companies, for their private misuse as well.
If, however, we stop the collection of dossiers on everyone, those dossiers won't exist, and there will be no way to compile them retroactively. A new illiberal regime would have to implement surveillance afresh, and it would only collect data starting at that date.
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As for suspending or momentarily ignoring this law, the idea would hardly make sense. To have privacy, you must not throw it away: the first one who has to protect your privacy is you. Avoid identifying yourself to web sites, contact them with Tor, and use browsers that block the schemes they use to track visitors.
Pay for things with cash. It's safe, however, to entrust a data backup to a commercial service, provided you put the files in an archive and encrypt the whole archive, including the names of the files, with free software on your own computer before uploading it. For privacy's sake, you must avoid nonfree software; if you give control of your computer's operations to companies, they are likely to make it spy on you. Avoid service as a software substitute ; in addition to giving others control of how your computing is done, it requires you to hand over all the pertinent data to the company's server.
Protect your friends' and acquaintances' privacy, too. Don't give out their personal information except how to contact them, and never give any web site your list of email or phone contacts. Don't tell a company such as Facebook anything about your friends that they might not wish to publish in a newspaper.
Better yet, don't be used by Facebook at all. Reject communication systems that require users to give their real names, even if you are happy to divulge yours, since they pressure other people to surrender their privacy. Self-protection is essential, but even the most rigorous self-protection is insufficient to protect your privacy on or from systems that don't belong to you.
When we communicate with others or move around the city, our privacy depends on the practices of society. We can avoid some of the systems that surveil our communications and movements, but not all of them. Clearly, the better solution is to make all these systems stop surveilling people other than legitimate suspects.
If we don't want a total surveillance society, we must consider surveillance a kind of social pollution, and limit the surveillance impact of each new digital system just as we limit the environmental impact of physical construction. This is implemented based on general surveillance, but does not require any surveillance.
PRISM: Performance of Routine Information System Management Series — MEASURE Evaluation
It would be easy for the power company to calculate the average usage in a residential neighborhood by dividing the total usage by the number of subscribers, and send that to the meters. Each customer's meter could compare her usage, over any desired period of time, with the average usage pattern for that period. The same benefit, with no surveillance!
One way to make monitoring safe for privacy is to keep the data dispersed and inconvenient to access. The recording was stored on the premises, and kept for a few weeks at most. Because of the inconvenience of accessing these recordings, it was never done massively; they were accessed only in the places where someone reported a crime.
It would not be feasible to physically collect millions of tapes every day and watch them or copy them. Nowadays, security cameras have become surveillance cameras: they are connected to the Internet so recordings can be collected in a data center and saved forever. In Detroit, the cops pressure businesses to give them unlimited access to their surveillance cameras so that they can look through them at any and all times. This is already dangerous, but it is going to get worse.
Advances in face recognition may bring the day when suspected journalists can be tracked on the street all the time to see who they talk with. Internet-connected cameras often have lousy digital security themselves, which means anyone can watch what those cameras see. This makes internet-connected cameras a major threat to security as well as privacy. For privacy's sake, we should ban the use of Internet-connected cameras aimed where and when the public is admitted, except when carried by people.
Everyone must be free to post photos and video recordings occasionally, but the systematic accumulation of such data on the Internet must be limited. Any camera pointed at someone's private space by someone else violates privacy, but that is another issue. Most data collection comes from people's own digital activities.
Usually the data is collected first by companies.
NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others
But when it comes to the threat to privacy and democracy, it makes no difference whether surveillance is done directly by the state or farmed out to a business, because the data that the companies collect is systematically available to the state. Strictly speaking, the U. Some companies are praised for resisting government data requests to the limited extent they can , but that can only partly compensate for the harm they do to by collecting that data in the first place.
In addition, many of those companies misuse the data directly or provide it to data brokers.
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The goal of making journalism and democracy safe therefore requires that we reduce the data collected about people by any organization, not just by the state.